When first using programming languages like C, C++, Java, I never stopped to think about what the compilation phase was actually doing, beyond considering it a necessary translation from source code to machine code. The need to annotate variables and methods with types seemed an intrinsic part of that process, and I never gave much thought about what it really meant, or the purpose it served; it was just part of writing and compiling code.
Using dynamic languages changes things, you realize that code may need some form of translation or interpretation for execution, but does not absolutely require type annotations as with statically typed languages. In this light, one reconsiders what a type system is from scratch, how it plays a part in compilation, and what compilation errors and type errors really are.
A type error (I am not talking about statistics) is an important concept to grasp well. In fact not just for programming, it is also a useful concept to illuminate errors in natural language and thinking. Briefly, a type error is treating data as belonging to a kind to which it does not in fact belong. The obvious example is invoking operations on an object that does not support them. Or alternatively, according to this page
type error: an attempt to perform an operation on arguments of the wrong types.
If one tries to perform such illegal operations (and there is no available conversion or coercion), the program can behave unexpectedly or crash. Statically typed languages can detect this error at compile time, which is a good thing. This is one of the main points advocates of statically typed languages make when discussing static and dynamic languages.
But the question is, how big an advantage is this? How important are type errors, what fraction of common programming errors do they make up? And how much of program correctness (in the non strict sense of the term) can a compiler check and ensure?
Compilers and type systems can be seen not just requirements to write programs that do not crash, but also tools with which to express and check problem domain information. The more information about the problem domain can be encoded in the type information in a program, the more the compiler can check for you. In this mindset one adds type information order to exploit the type system, rather than just conform to it.
Here are a few examples where problem domain information is encoded in types in order to prevent errors that otherwise could occur at runtime, and therefore would need specific checks. A concrete example taken from the first post I linked
- If I call
moveon a tic-tac-toe board, but the game has finished, I should get a compile-time type-error. In other words, calling
moveon inappropriate game states (i.e. move doesn’t make sense) is disallowed by the types.
- If I call
takeMoveBackon a tic-tac-toe board, but no moves have yet been made, I get a compile-time type-error.
- If I call
whoWonOrDrawon a tic-tac-toe board, but the game hasn’t yet finished, I get a compile-time type-error.
By encoding these rules of the problem domain into the type system, it is not possible to write a program that violates the rule, logic errors in the program do not compile.
But it is unrealistic to go all the way and say, all the relevant information should be expressible in types, and its really seductive twin: all program errors are type errors. Unfortunately, the real world is not that tidy and convenient, unless you’re doing specialized things like theorem proving, or programming with an exotic programming language like Coq.
As advocates of dynamic languages know very well, there is no subsitute for unit testing and integration tests. The compiler should not make you feel safe enough to disregard testing. Compile-time checking and testing are complementary, not mutually exclusive. Compile-time checking does not eliminate the need for testing, nor does testing eliminate the benefits of compile-time checking.
Still, there is most probably room left to express more relevant information in the type system and making the compiler do more work for you. And this becomes even more plausible if you’re using a language with such a powerful type system as Scala. More on these matters: Static Typing Where Possible, Dynamic Typing When Needed: The End of the Cold War Between Programming Languages.